Decoupling of Two Co-Frequency Small Patch Array Antennas Using Meta surface Mantle Cloaking for Beam Steering Applications

Document Type : Original Article


Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


In this study, the mantle cloaking method is utilized to eliminate strong mutual coupling between two compact co-frequency patch antenna arrays with orthogonal polarizations. The patches are reduced in size by 33% through the addition of two slots on the resonant edges, allowing a reduction in distance between elements and enabling beam steering. To mitigate the destructive effects of mutual coupling between elements, a thin metasurface cloak is placed on the top and bottom surfaces of the patches. The metasurface cloak exhibits capacitive reactance at the desired operating frequency and eliminates the inductive reactance caused by induced currents from adjacent patches, making the elements of the two arrays invisible to each other. Full-wave simulation is used to evaluate the performance of this cloak structure in terms of array radiation characteristics. Results show that adding the cloak increased array efficiency by 35% compared to the uncloaked case, with isolation between elements improving by over 24 dB at the operating frequency. Radiation patterns in the cloaked case demonstrate a 98.5% similarity to those of isolated arrays. The antenna gains in the cloaked case slightly decreased by 0.1 dB and 0.2 dB for arrays I and II, respectively, and the sidelobe levels increased by 0.5 dB and 0.2 dB compared to isolated arrays. These findings confirm that this metasurface cloak design successfully restores radiation characteristics of tightly coupled arrays similar to those of isolated arrays.


Main Subjects

[1] Qian, X. Chen, A. A. Kishk, "Decoupling of microstrip antennas with defected ground structure using the common/differential mode theory," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 828-832, 2021.
[2] V. Babu, B. Anuradha, "Design of UWB MIMO antenna to reduce the mutual coupling using defected ground structure," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 3469-3484, 2021.
[3] Li, L. Jiang, K. L. Yeung, "Novel and efficient parasitic decoupling network for closely coupled antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 3574-3585, 2019.
[4] Li, S. Cheung, "A novel calculation-based parasitic decoupling technique for increasing isolation in multiple-element MIMO antenna arrays," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 446-458, 2020.
[5] Li, A. P. Feresidis, M. Mavridou, P. S. Hall, "Miniaturized double-layer EBG structures for broadband mutual coupling reduction between UWB monopoles," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 1168-1171, 2015.
[6] Alibakhshikenari, M. Khalily, B. S. Virdee, C. H. See, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, E. Limiti, "Mutual-coupling isolation using embedded metamaterial EM bandgap decoupling slab for densely packed array antennas," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 51827-51840, 2019.
[7] Singh, F. L. Lohar, "Metamaterial-Based Miniaturized DGS Antenna for wireless Applications," in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2022, vol. 1225, no. 1: IOP Publishing, p. 012035.
[8] Omidvar, P. Rezaei, E. Atashpanjeh "Mutual coupling reduction with Peyton Turtle pattern nearfield surface for MIMO patch antenna," Frequenz, 2023.
[9] Habibi Daronkola, et al., "Mutual coupling reduction using plane spiral orbital angular momentum electromagnetic wave," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 346-355, 2022.
[10] Schurig et al., "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science, vol. 314, no. 5801, pp. 977-980, 2006.
[11] Vehmas, P. Alitalo, S. Tretyakov, "Experimental demonstration of antenna blockage reduction with a transmission-line cloak," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 830-834, 2012.
[12] Alitalo, A. E. Culhaoglu, A. V. Osipov, S. Thurner, E. Kemptner, S. A. Tretyakov, "Experimental characterization of a broadband transmission-line cloak in free space," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 4963-4968, 2012.
[13] Danaeifar, M. Kamyab, A. Jafargholi, "Broadband cloaking with transmission‐line networks and metamaterial," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer‐Aided Engineering, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 663-668, 2012.
[14] Rainwater, A. Kerkhoff, K. Melin, J. Soric, G. Moreno, A. Alù, "Experimental verification of three-dimensional plasmonic cloaking in free-space," New Journal of Physics, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 013054, 2012.
[15] Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, A. Alu, "Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching," Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 26, p. 263905, 2012.
[16] S. Filonov, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, "Double‐shell metamaterial coatings for plasmonic cloaking," Physica Status Solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 46-48, 2012.
[17] Alù, "Mantle cloak: Invisibility induced by a surface," Physical Review B, vol. 80, no. 24, p. 245115, 2009.
[18] Su, Y. Zhao, S. Jia, W. Shi, H. Wang, "An ultra-wideband and polarization-independent metasurface for RCS reduction," Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 20387, 2016.
[19] Serna, L. J. Molina, J. Rivero, L. Landesa, J. M. Taboada, "Multilayer homogeneous dielectric filler for electromagnetic invisibility," Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 13923, 2018.
[20] Younesiraad, M. Bemani, S. Nikmehr, "Scattering suppression and cloak for electrically large objects using cylindrical metasurface based on monolayer and multilayer mantle cloak approach," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 278-285, 2019.
[21] Monti, J. C. Soric, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, "Anisotropic mantle cloaks for TM and TE scattering reduction," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1775-1788, 2015.
[22] C. Soric, A. Monti, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, A. Alù, "Dual-polarized reduction of dipole antenna blockage using mantle cloaks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 4827-4834, 2015.
[23] Monti et al., "Mantle cloaking for co-site radio-frequency antennas," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 108, no. 11, p. 113502, 2016.
[24] Moreno et al., "Wideband elliptical metasurface cloaks in printed antenna technology," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 3512-3525, 2018.
[25] Monti, J. Soric, A. Alù, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, "Design of cloaked Yagi-Uda antennas," EPJ Applied Metamaterials, vol. 3, p. 10, 2016.
[26] Vellucci et al., "Non-linear mantle cloaks for self-configurable power-dependent phased arrays," in 2020 XXXIIIrd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science, 2020: IEEE, pp. 1-3.
[27] Vellucci et al., "Overcoming mantle cloaking limits in antenna applications through non-linear metasurfaces," in 2020 Fourteenth International Congress on Artificial Materials for Novel Wave Phenomena (Metamaterials), 2020: IEEE, pp. 355-357.
[28] Vellucci et al., "On the use of nonlinear metasurfaces for circumventing fundamental limits of mantle cloaking for antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 5048-5053, 2021.
[29] Vellucci, A. Monti, M. Barbuto, A. Toscano, F. Bilotti, "Progress and perspective on advanced cloaking metasurfaces: from invisibility to intelligent antennas," EPJ Applied Metamaterials, vol. 8, p. 7, 2021.
[30] Y. Chen, A. Alu, "Mantle cloaking using thin patterned metasurfaces," Physical Review B, vol. 84, no. 20, p. 205110, 2011.
[31] M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, "Decoupling antennas in printed technology using elliptical metasurface cloaks," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 119, no. 1, p. 014904, 2016.
[32] M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, "Cloaking of single and multiple elliptical cylinders and strips with confocal elliptical nanostructured graphene metasurface," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 27, no. 18, p. 185304, 2015.
[33] Moosaei, M. H. Neshati, "Design investigation of mantle-cloak for a PEC cylindrical object under oblique incidence of TM and TE waves," AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 137, pp. 153801, 2021.
[34] R. Padooru, A. B. Yakovlev, P.-Y. Chen, A. Alu, "Analytical modeling of conformal mantle cloaks for cylindrical objects using sub-wavelength printed and slotted arrays," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 112, no. 3, p. 034907, 2012.
[35] M. Bernety, A. B. Yakovlev, "Reduction of mutual coupling between neighboring strip dipole antennas using confocal elliptical metasurface cloaks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1554-1563, 2015.
[36] Pawar, H. M. Bernety, H. G. Skinner, S.-Y. Suh, A. Alù, A. B. Yakovlev, "Mantle cloaking for decoupling of interleaved phased antenna arrays in 5G applications," in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2020, vol. 2300, no. 1: AIP Publishing LLC, p. 020095.
[37] Niu, H. Zhang, Q. Chen, T. Zhong, "Isolation enhancement in closely coupled dual-band MIMO patch antennas," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1686-1690, 2019.
[38] Liu, J. Guo, L. Zhao, G.-L. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Yin, "Ceramic superstrate-based decoupling method for two closely packed antennas with cross-polarization suppression," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 1751-1756, 2020.
[39] L. Chung, A. Cui, M. Ma, B. Feng, Y. Li, "Central-Symmetry Decoupling Technique for Circularly-Polarized MIMO System of Tightly Packed Chinese-character Shaped Patch Antennas," The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), pp. 1125-1131, 2021.
[40] -F. Cheng, K. K. M. Cheng, "Decoupling of 2× 2 MIMO antenna by using mixed radiation modes and novel patch element design," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 8204-8213, 2021.
[41] Mei, Y. M. Zhang, S. Zhang, "Decoupling of a wideband dual-polarized large-scale antenna array with dielectric stubs," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 7363-7374, 2021.
[42] Qi, D. Yang, H. Zhai, Y. Zeng, Z. Wang, "Patch Antenna Array Decoupling Based on Polarization Conversion Frequency Selective Surface," in 2020 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT), 2020: IEEE, pp. 1-3.
[43] -L. Wu, C. Wei, X. Mei, Z.-Y. Zhang, "Array-antenna decoupling surface," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 6728-6738, 2017.
[44] Masoumi, R. Kazemi, A. E. Fathy, "Design and implementation of elliptical mantle cloaks for polarization decoupling of two tightly spaced interleaved co-frequency patch array antennas," Scientific Reports, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-16, 2023.